By Kara Rogers
The seeming simplicity of day by day stream can belie the complexity of the buildings that facilitate movement. greater than only a framework round which the physique develops, the human skeleton has advanced over the years to permit people to stroll and stand upright. muscle mass likewise practice quite a number features, with out which the physique couldn't deal with. This finished ebook info the anatomy and mechanisms that permit bones and muscle mass to function evidently and examines the implications of ailment and harm on those primary parts of the human physique.
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Additional info for Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human Body)
The functions of bone include (1) structural support for the mechanical action of soft tissues, such as the contraction of muscles and the expansion of lungs, (2) protection of soft organs and tissues, as by the skull, (3) provision of a protective site for specialized tissues such as the blood-forming system (bone marrow), and (4) a mineral reservoir, whereby the endocrine system (the group of ductless glands that secrete hormones) regulates the level of calcium and phosphate in the circulating body fluids.
The process takes two general forms, one for compact bone and the other for cancellous bone. Bone of the first type begins in the embryonic skeleton with a cartilage model, which is gradually replaced by bone. Osteoblasts secrete a matrix material called osteoid, a gelatinous substance made up of collagen (a fibrous protein), and mucopolysaccharide, an organic glue. Soon after the osteoid is laid down, inorganic salts are deposited in it to form the hardened material recognized as mineralized bone.
The diaphysis and metaphysis are nourished primarily by the nutrient artery, which passes through the cortex into the medullary cavity and then ramifies outward through Haversian and Volkmann canals to supply the cortex. Extensive vessels in the periosteum, the membrane surrounding the bone, supply the superficial layers of the cortex and connect with the nutrient-artery system. In the event of obstruction of the nutrient artery, periosteal vessels are capable of meeting the needs of both systems.
Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion (The Human Body) by Kara Rogers
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